Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, with diameters in the range of a few tens of nanometers, display the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and are envisioned as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in neuro-medicine. However, despite the numerous applications being explored, insufficient information is available on their potential toxic effect on neurons. While iron oxide has been shown to pose a decreased risk of toxicity, surface functionalization, often employed for targeted delivery, can significantly alter the biological response. This aspect is addressed in the present study, which investigates the response of primary cortical neurons to iron oxide nanoparticles with coatings frequently used in biomedical applications: aminosilane, dextran, and polydimethylamine. Prior to administering the particles to neuronal cultures, each particle type was thoroughly characterized to assess the (1) size of individual nanoparticles, (2) concentration of the particles in solution, and (3) agglomeration size and morphology. Culture results show that polydimethylamine functionalized nanoparticles induce cell death at all concentrations tested by swift and complete removal of the plasma membrane. Aminosilane coated particles affected metabolic activity only at higher concentrations while leaving the membrane intact, and dextran-coated nanoparticles partially altered viability at higher concentrations. These findings suggest that nanoparticle characterization and primary cell-based cytotoxicity evaluation should be completed prior to applying nanomaterials to the nervous system.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.25, 153–161 (2012).